In: Grand West Region> GD 44 – Loire-Atlantique Salon a record 19th Freinet lounge Conference Nantes-Notes of Peter – “The role of speech in the institution school, masterful speech, citizen voice, word of hearing about “to borrow a word from Freinet” school is too proud to own science “and therefore tends to favor the master of the word and to neglect the word of students yet there are at least two levels: – in the field of trade concerning the community of life and functioning – in the field of learning. If we go back far into the past, we see that the debate has always opposed the one hand, proponents of a transmission centered on the authority of knowledge and that of the master, and on the other hand, the teachers who make up the word of the student in the school system.
I propose to identify some school story elements that show – that this debate comes a slow and difficult process of democratization – that this debate is taking place on a back plane of social exclusion and school failure. But we will see that it is the balance between the three words that could be the guarantor of a democratic and effective school. 1) I / We. The word of the learning topic. The time of the humanists.
We hold each other than with words. Montaigne in the master must let his student. Comenius (Preceptor picture) in the middle of an environment: the lights of knowledge are taking it through the master students in business. What interests humanists is doubt. Critique of Scholastic, Montaigne described as true “jails of the captive youth.” One learns nothing than Latin.
Montaigne blames the violence of institutions “school” of his time. Abbey of Thelema (Rabelais) to “Do what wilt”: using the natural ability to open their eyes to what is around us. Querying the status of knowledge: knowledge he used to distinguish people socially or influence the world?
Rousseau opposes the authority to reason. Mutual education since the eighteenth century and established under the Restoration, under English influence: monitors students placed facing a group. The master waives the exclusive right to speech expert. 2) knowledge and its social meaning. The scientific word.
Ideal Condorcet (1792) to provide all individuals the means to provide for their needs. Consideration of a duty of justice, overturning the principles of education: no longer transmit knowledge to those who “deserve” socially but allow all citizens to exercise their citizenship; this is walking towards democratization.
After the Revolution, Napoleon hastened to do the opposite, not only in education, but in the whole social system: affirmation of the precepts of the Catholic religion, loyalty to the Emperor, obedience to the state, the motherland, religion, family. A new project emerges with the 1848 Revolution and Lazare Hippolyte Carnot (Minister of Education). The introduction of universal suffrage induces a return to the principles advocated by Condorcet.
The answer Thiers does not suffer from ambiguity must be limited education to read, write and count, while the rest is superfluous. The state can devote the money saved to “inspection” (the police, in the language of the time), it is important not to instruct the people in order not to undermine the established order. After the defeat of 1870, comes the era of the “black hussars of the Republic” that will bring the people concerned know why.
The Jules Ferry laws of 1881-1882 are designed to bring people together around a culture and a common language allowing the nation to come together. Ferry’s laws add to the read write count, moral and civic education (rather than religious), music … “Those who are strong on the mechanism do not understand what they say.” But this system remains socially unequal as soon as the secondary is approached. 3) The division of responsibilities. The political speech.
The reform is on the margin (such as the School of Rocks, which targets disadvantaged classes). It’s time innovative. John Dewey (1899) ( “It is to the citizens, not scientists.”), And Freinet 1930) and Gustave Monod (1945), creator of Pedagogical Notebooks, for which the order of the class will be given children themselves (the “new class”). What is important is to put students into activity.
They communicate and do handicrafts, but the pictures still we see the head down. In 1945 Langevin Wallon and find divorce between school education and the real. In March 1968 appears the word momentum, just before May 68 which saw the revolt against boredom and against a model that does not want to.
The reform of 1975 (Haby law) establishes the single college. Now we have a single system for children 6 to 12 years, but inequality is reflected in the secondary, scored at the stream level. Secondary education is always centered on the knowledge (much of children of the bourgeoisie hold the tray C, for example). consultation instances are introduced (AC and EC), which make possible for the first time political speech in the education system.
The student group has been given the perspective to make. TPE can circumvent the problem: affirmation of the word of the learner, which becomes knowledge producer. Similarly we see the DLI that enable the development of skills.
But TPEs are removed, and everything is new refocused on knowledge. The Sarkozy-projects Darcos announced a “back to basics”. The least we can say is that these fundamentals are not those of Condorcet. operative techniques is decreed to be acquired before the direction of operations.
It has given the whole place to knowledge, to the detriment of the other two poles (power and learn about). 4) The 3 powers of speech. Henri Atlan says that between the poetic word, political speech and speech science, we must maintain the right to speak to these three powers. This tripolarity is reflected in the pattern of the sociologist Rene Lourau: the core group, the action group and the working group.
It is useless to pretend that the working group obscured all others. We must highlight the three components. – the core group returns about learning; it is the privileged place of the word “poetic”. – the action group refers to power; it is the privileged place of the word “political.” – the Working Party refers to knowledge; it is the privileged place of the word “scientific.” A school that succeeds is a democratic school. A democratic school is a school that succeeds.
The condition of this achievement lies in the balance between the three axes. In conclusion, one can rest on a known example of a school that succeeds, that of Mons-en-Bar?ul where this balance between the three axes is respected. But it begs the question, and in regular schools?
Success can again be achieved if certain conditions are met: teamwork of teachers, parents welcome in the school, establishment of an active pedagogy …
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9 Results Congress ICEM – 2017 Grenoble Martine Roussel on 10/17/16 – 6:20 p.m.
In: Gr ICEM Congress Preparation> 2017 Grenoble Congress. Dates: 22/08/17 – 09:00 – 08/25/17 – 14:00 Location: Grenoble, Universite Grenoble Alpes (UGA) Congress Congress icem Grenoble 2017 53rd Congress of the ICEM will take place near Grenoble on the campus of the University of Grenoble in Saint Alps Martin d’Heres the 22 to 25 August 2017 Its theme: the Freinet: a path to emancipation.